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送彩金最多娱乐场,什么是“让步”和“让步状语”

2020-01-11 15:33:17

送彩金最多娱乐场,什么是“让步”和“让步状语”

送彩金最多娱乐场,点击文章底部“了解更多”,获取《英语周报》美式发音专题视频课

让步状语从句,是状语从句中高频出现的几种关系之一。但是很少有人能解释清楚“让步”这个概念。因为解释不清楚,所以导致两个后果:

一是混淆它和转折关系有什么不同,所以会出现“虽然though”和“但是but”混用,其实并非中文影响那么简单;

二是导致一种简单粗暴的处理方式:让步=“虽然”。那么“尽管(despite)”呢、“无论(however)”呢?就搞不清了。

在各种语法书里查找关于“让步状语”的定义,它们会告诉你:though、even though引导的状语从句,那就是让步状语——这就好比说:四条腿的就是狗。

那板凳呢?

所以要说清楚“让步状语”,要先从“concession(让步)”这个词开始。

所谓“让步”,在论辩中,它就是一种以退为攻的修辞策略。即说话者先承认、或作出承认对方正确的姿态。

concession is an argumentative strategyby which a speaker or writer acknowledges (or appears to acknowledge) the validity ofan opponent's point.

修辞学家这样说“让步”:使用让步策略不是妥协,而是给人一个印象——我很大度、能够接受你的部分观点,这源于我对自己的自信。

"the audience gets the impression that the person capable of making frank confessions and generous concessions are not only a good person but a person so confident of the strength of his or her position that he or she can afford to concede points to the opposition" (edward p.j. corbett, classical rhetoricfor the modern student, 1999).

以下是几组比较好的定义。

"concessive clauses indicate that the situation in the matrix clause is contrary to expectation in the light of what is said in the concessive clause" (a comprehensivegrammar of the english language, 1985).

让步状语从句表示:我们根据从句内容会产生一个预期,但是主句内容却与它相反。

例如:though he has tried his best, he lostthe game.(从句“尽了最大努力”,预期应该是胜出;但结果却与之相反:他输了比赛)

concessive clauses are adverbial clauses, so called because they admit or concede something, in spite of which the statement made in the main clause is and continues to be true. the truth of the main clause is being emphasized by contrast.

从句中承认某种相反看法,但尽管有这个认可,并不影响主句陈述内容的正确性。事实上,主句陈述的正确性,正是通过这种对照得到了强调。

例如:we thoroughly understand each other, even if we don’t always agree. (彼此存在分歧,这是一个事实;但这并不影响我们互相理解对方。这句话恰恰是通过“分歧”来突出“理解”)

concessive construction is another type of contrast, where the idea of one clause is in some way opposing the idea of the other, and which often expresses an element of surprise. for example, we may feel that it is surprising to pay a lot of money for a meal in a restaurant and to find that the food is awful, or to fail an exam after studying hard.

让步结构也是一种对比。从句内容与主句内容存在某种相反关系,主句呈现给我们的往往是预料之外的。例如:(虽然)我们发现餐馆饭菜很糟糕,却要付很多钱;(虽然)学习很努力,考试却没通过——后面主句的结果都是有些出乎意料(surprising)的。

因此我们可以得出这样一个结论:

让步状语从句的话题,是给主句做铺垫,为的是引出一个全新的、不同的话题。

简单一点理解,是否可以这样说:如果把though从句连词换成because,主句改为否定,从句和主句就可能是因果关系?

例如:

though there were a number of online resources, our students used to learn vocabulary from textbooks.——

because there were a number of online resources, our students usedn’t to learn vocabulary from textbooks.

redmond continued to travel and investigate agriculture, though he mostly stayed close to augusta. ——

redmond didn’t continueto travel and investigate agriculture, because he mostly stayed close to augusta.

even though emma joy did very well on her first standardized test, she still has a challenge to face. ——

because emma joy did very well on her first standardized test, she doesn’t have a challenge to face.

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后语:坚持是一种信仰,专注是一种态度!每一次您的转发,就是对我们的认同和鼓励!亲们,喜欢就积极转发吧,您的每一次转发,都是我们持续的原创动力。原创的路上感恩有您一路同行!!!

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